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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-7

Osteoporosis: A narrative review of diagnosis and treatment

Department of General Medicine, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Ravi Kant
Department of General Medicine, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/juoa.juoa_1_22

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Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a subsequent increment in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. It is the most common metabolic bone disorder. It is a common condition affecting one in three women and one in five men over 50, resulting in substantial morbidity, excess mortality, and health and social services expenditure. Osteoporosis is undertreated and underrecognized, considering the silent nature of the disease. Therefore, it is essential to develop strategies for early detection, prompt prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis in both men and women. This paper reviews the risk factors associated with osteoporosis, diagnostic approach, investigation, and management. This should include multidynamic lifestyle changes to reduce bone loss and decrease the risk of falls and identify and treat secondary causes of bone loss and specific treatment for osteoporosis. Hormone replacement therapy, raloxifene, bisphosphonates, calcium and Vitamin D, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone have all been shown to improve bone density and decrease the risk of fracture in specific situations. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient to ensure compliance and optimize the potential benefits.

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